Spoluhláska: Rozdiel medzi revíziami

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'''Spoluhláska''' alebo '''konsonant''' je [[hláska]], ktorá:
* z fyziologického hľadiska: je tvorená prechodom vzduchového prúdu rečovými ústrojmi tak, že premáha rozličné prekážky
 
== Slovenčina ==
 
===Zoznam a transkripcia ===
====Spoluhlásky v pravom slova zmysle (=spoluhláskové zvuky) ====
V slovenčine sa vyskytujú nasledujúce spoluhlásky v pravom slova zmysle (t.j. spoluhláskové zvuky). Uvedené sú tu hlásky, príp. alofóny (nie fonémy, ani grafémy):<ref>{{harvbz|Kráľ|2009|St=38}}</ref><ref name="pavlik-2004_87-109">{{Harvbz|Pavlík|2004|Sst=87–109}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; font-size:12px; line-height:1.4em; margin:0; width:100%" border="1"
{| class="wikitable"|font-size:12px|
|-
! colspan=3|hláska
! style="text-align:left; width:12em; font-size:10px" | Tradičný prepis
! rowspan=2|zodpovedajúce písmeno (príklad)
| p || b || <s>m</s> || u || f || w || m || v || t || d || n || s || z || ȵ || c || ʒ || š || ž || č || ǯ || r || l || r̥ || l̥ || ŕ̥ || ĺ̥ || ť || ď || ň || ľ || j || ĭ || k || g || ŋ || x || ɣ || <s>n</s> || h
|-
! slovenská transkripcia
! základná transkripcia<br> podľa [[Medzinárodná fonetická |IPA]]<br>
! špecifickejšia transkripcia<br> podľa IPA
|-
| [b]
| [b]
| [b]
| b (baran), c (vstúpme)
|-
| [c]
| [t͡s](=[t͜s], [ts])
| [t̻&#865;s̻] (=[t̻&#860;s̻],[t̻s̻])
| c (cena), dz (prechádzka)
|-
| [č](=[ç])
| [t͡ʃ] (=[t͜ʃ],[tʃ])
| [t&#826;&#865;ʃ̺](=[t&#826;&#860;ʃ̺],[t&#826;ʃ̺] )
| č (čakať), dž (imidž)
|-
| [d]
| [d]
| [d̻]
| d (dom), t (kliatba)
|-
| [ď] (=[dˇ],[ḑ],[ᶁ],[d,])
| [ɟ] <br>(''in.'' [d<sup>j</sup>])
| [ɟ] <br>(''in.'' [d̻<sup>j</sup>],[d<sup>j3</sup>],[d̻<sup>j3</sup>], ≈[ɟ<sup>j-1</sup>])
| ď (ďakujem), d (desať), ť (desaťročie)
|-
| [ʒ] (=[d͡z])
| [d͡z](=[d͜z],[dz])
| [d̻&#865;z̻](=[d̻&#860;z̻],[d̻z̻])
| dz (hádzať), c (hocako)
|-
| [ǯ] (=[d͡z&#806;])
| [d͡ʒ] (=[d͜ʒ],[dʒ])
| [d&#826;&#865;ʒ̺] (=[d&#826;&#860;ʒ̺],[d&#826;ʒ̺] )
| dž (džem), č (liečba)
|-
| [f]
| [f]
| [f]
| f (farba), v (včela)
|-
| [<span style="font-family:Georgia; font-size:110%;">g</span>] (=[g])
| [ɡ] (=[<span style="font-family:Georgia; font-size:110%;">g</span>])
| [ɡ] (=[<span style="font-family:Georgia; font-size:110%;">g</span>])
| g (guma), k (kde), q (Rafiq budí)<br>sčasti: X (exil)
|-
| [h] (=[ɦ])
| [ɦ]
| [ɦ]
| h (noha), ch (výťah)
|-
| [x]
| [x]
| [x]
| ch (chata)
|-
| [ɣ]
| [ɣ]
| [ɣ]
| ch (achjaj), h (bohvie)
|-
| [j]
| [j]
| [j]
| j (jama)
|-
| [(j)](=[/j/], [j])
| [ʝ]
| [ʝ]
| j (prijímať)
|-
| [ĭ](=[ǐ],[i̯])
| [j&#798;] (≈[ĭ&#798;]≈[ɪ̯])
| [j&#798;] (≈[ĭ&#798;]≈[ɪ̯])
| j (kraj), i (detail)
|-
| [k]
| [k]
| [k]
| k (ruka), g (mozog), <br>sčasti: q (tequila, status quo), x (taxi)
|-
| [l]
| [l]
| [l̺]
| l (lampa)
|-
| [l̥]
| [l&#809;]
| [l&#809;&#826;]
| l (vlk)
|-
| [ĺ] (=[l:], [ĺ&#805;])
| [lː] (=[l&#809;ː])
| [l&#809;&#826;ː]
| ĺ (vĺča)
|-
| [ľ] (=[lˇ],[ļ],[ᶅ],[l,])
| [l<sup>j</sup>] ''al.'' [ʎ] (''in.'' [l<sup>j</sup>])
| [l̺<sup>j</sup>](=[l<sup>j1</sup>],[l̺<sup>j1</sup>]) ''al.'' [ʎ] (''in.'' [l<sup>j3</sup>],[l̺<sup>j3</sup>])
| ľ (veľa), l (lesný)
|-
| [m]
| [m]
| [m]
| m (mama), n (hanba)
|-
| [<strike>m</strike>] (=[ɱ])
| [ɱ]
| [ɱ]
| m (amfiteáter)
|-
| [n]
| [n]
| [n̺]
| n (nos)
|-
| [ȵ] <br>(=[n̥], [<strike>n</strike>]{{#tag:ref|[<strike>n</strike>] je tu uvedené preto, lebo [ȵ](IPA [n&#798;]) a [<strike>n</strike>] (IPA [ŋ&#798;]) sa niekedy (najmä v starších textoch) považujú za jednu hlásku, ktorá sa označuje [<strike>n</strike>].|group=pozn}})
| [n&#798;]
| [n&#827;&#798;]
| n (banský)
|-
| [ŋ]
| [ŋ]
| [ŋ]
| n (banka)
|-
| [<strike>n</strike>]
| [ŋ&#798;](=[ɰ̃])
| [ŋ&#798;](=[ɰ̃])
| n (melanchólia)
|-
| [ň] (=[ņ],[ᶇ],[n,])
| [ɲ] <br>(''in.'' [n<sup>j</sup>])
| [ɲ] <br>(''in.'' [n̻<sup>j</sup>],[n<sup>j3</sup>], [n̻<sup>j3</sup>])
| ň (ňuchať), n (nebo)
|-
| [p]
| [p]
| [p]
| p (para), b (dub)
|-
| [r]
| [ɾ]
| [ɾ&#826;]
| r (rak)
|-
| [r̥]
| [r]([r̩])
| [r̩&#826;]
| r (krmivo)
|-
| [ŕ] (=[r:], [ŕ&#805;])
| [rː] (=[r̩ː])
| [r̩&#826;ː]
| ŕ (vŕba)
|-
| [s]
| [s]
| [s̻]
| s (sen), z (bozk) <br>sčasti: x (taxi)
|-
| [š]
| [ʃ]
| [ʃ̺]
| š (šanca), ž (krádež)
|-
| [t]
| [t]
| [t̻]
| t (tabuľa), d (podkova)
|-
| [ť] (=[tˇ],[ţ],[ƫ],[t,])
| [c] <br>(''in.'' [t<sup>j</sup>])
| [c] <br>(''in.'' [t̻<sup>j</sup>],[t<sup>j3</sup>],[t̻<sup>j3</sup>], ≈[c<sup>j-1</sup>])
| ť (ťava), ď (loďka), t (teplý)
|-
| [w]
| [v]
| [v]
| v (vdova), f (šéfredaktor) <br>sčasti: q (status quo)
|-
| [v]
| [ʋ]
| [ʋ]
| v (slovo), w (watt)
|-
| [ŭ] (= [ǔ],[u̯])
| [w] (≈[ŭ&#798;]≈[ʊ̯ ])
| [w] (≈[ŭ&#798;]≈[ʊ̯ ])
| v (dav), u (peknou), w (cowboy)
|-
| [z]
| [z]
| [z̻]
| z (zima), s (prosba) <br>sčasti: X (exil)
|-
| [ž]
| [ʒ]
| [ʒ̺]
| ž (život), š (nášho)
|-
! style="text-align:left; font-size:10px" | IPA prepis
| {{ipa2|p|}} || {{ipa2|b|}} || {{ipa2|m|}} || {{ipa2|w|}} || {{ipa2|f|}} || {{ipa2|v|}} || {{ipa2|ɱ|}} || {{ipa2|ʋ|}} || {{ipa2|t̻|}} || {{ipa2|d̻|}} || {{ipa2|n|}} || {{ipa2|s̻|}} || {{ipa2|z̻|}} || {{ipa2|n̻|}} || {{ipa2|ʦ̻|}} || {{ipa2|ʣ̻|}} || {{ipa2|ʃ̺|}} || {{ipa2|ʒ̺|}} || {{ipa2|ʧ̺|}} || {{ipa2|ʤ̺|}} || {{ipa2|ɾ̺|}} || {{ipa2|l|}} || {{ipa2|r̺̍|}} || {{ipa2|l̺|}} || {{ipa2|r̺̍ː|}} || {{ipa2|l̺ː|}} || {{ipa2|c|}} || {{ipa2|ɟ|}} || {{ipa2|ɲ|}} || {{ipa2|ʎ|}}/{{ipa2|l̺ʲ|}} || {{ipa2|j|}}/{{ipa2|ʝ|}} || {{ipa2|ȷ|}} || {{ipa2|k|}} || {{ipa2|g|}} || {{ipa2|ŋ|}} || {{ipa2|x|}} || {{ipa2|ɣ|}} || {{ipa2|ŋ|}} || {{ipa2|ɦ|}}
|}
 
====Spoluhláskové grafémy ====
Spisovná slovenčina používa tieto spoluhláskové grafémy (spoluhláskové písmená): b, c, č, d, ď, dz, dž, f, g, h, ch, j, k, l, ľ, ĺ, m, n, ň, p, q, r, ŕ, s, š, t, ť, v, w, x, z, ž.
|- style="font-size:10px"
!  
! colspan="2" | bilabiálne <br>(= obojpernéoboj-<br>perné,<br>pernopernéperno-<br>perné)
! colspan="2" | labiodentálnelabio-<br>dentálne<br>(= pernozubnéperno-<br>zubné)
! colspan="3" | prealveolárnepre-<br>alveolárne<br>(= predoďasnovépredo-<br>ďasnové,<br>alveolárne <small>v užšom už. zmysle</small>,<br>ďasňové <small>v užšom už. zmysle</small>)
! colspan="4" | postaveolárnepost-<br>aveolárne <br>(= zadoďasnové)
! colspan="3" | palatálne <br>(= tvrdopodnebnétvrdo-<br>podnebné,<br>predopodnebnépredo-<br>podnebné,<br>mäkké)
! colspan="2" | velárne <br>(=mäkkopodnebnémäkko-<br>podnebné,<br>zadopodnebnézado-<br>podnebné)
! laryngálnelaryn-<br>gálne <br>(=hrtanovéhrta-<br>nové)
! colspan="3" |  
 
|- style="font-size:120%"
! rowspan="3" style="font-size:10px" | ústne
| [p]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„p“ v slove „popol“">p</span> {{IPA2|p|}}
|  
|  
| [f]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„f“ v slove „fajka“">f</span> {{IPA2|f|}}
| [t]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„t“ v slove „vata“">t</span> {{IPA2|t̻|}}
| [s]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„s“ v slove „strom“">s</span> {{IPA2|s̻|}}
| [c]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„c“ v slove „cena“">c</span> {{IPA2|ʦ̻|}}
|  
|  
| [š]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„š“ v slove „košeľa“">š</span> {{IPA2|ʃ̺|}}
| [č]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„č“ v slove „oči“">č</span> {{IPA2|ʧ̺|}}
| [ť]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ť“ v slove „ťava“">ť</span> {{IPA2|c|}}
|  
|  
| [k]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„k“ v slove „krk“">k</span> {{IPA2|k|}}
| [x]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ch“ v slove „chata“">x</span> {{IPA2|x|}}
|  
! style="font-size:10px" | neznelé
 
|- style="font-size:120%"
| [b]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„b“ v slove „žaba“">b</span> {{IPA2|b|}}
|  
|  
| [w]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„f“ v slove „šéflekár“">w</span> {{IPA2|v|}}
| [d]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„d“ v slove „dom“">d</span> {{IPA2|d̻|}}
| [z]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„z“ v slove „váza“">z</span> {{IPA2|z̻|}}
| [ʒ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„dz“ v slove „hádzať“">ʒ</span> {{IPA2|ʣ̻|}}
|  
|  
| [ž]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ž“ v slove „veža“">ž</span> {{IPA2|ʒ̺|}}
| [ǯ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„dž“ v slove „džem“">ǯ</span> {{IPA2|ʤ̺|}}
| [ď]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ď“ v slove „háďa“">ď</span> {{IPA2|ɟ|}}
|  
|  
| [g]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„g“ v slove „agát“">g</span> {{IPA2|ɡ|}}
| [ch]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ch“ v spojení „vrch hory“">ɣ</span> {{IPA2|ɣ|}}
| [h]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„h“ v slove „hrýzť“">h</span> {{IPA2|ɦ|}}
! rowspan="4" style="font-size:10px" | znelé
! rowspan="2" style="font-size:10px;line-height:1.3em" | šumovo-tónové
|  
|  
| [j]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„j“ v slove „dvaja“">j</span> {{IPA2|j|}}/{{IPA2|ʝ|}}
|  
|  
|- style="font-size:120%"
! style="font-size:10px" | nosové
| [m]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„m“ v slove „mama“">m</span> {{IPA2|m|}}
|  
| [ɱ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„m“ v slove „amfiteáter“">ɱ (<s>m</s>)</span> {{IPA2|ɱ|}}
|  
| [n]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„n“ v slove „nos“">n</span> {{IPA2|n̺|}}
| [ȵ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„n“ v slove „sponzor“">n̥ (ȵ)</span> {{IPA2|n̞̻|}}
|  
|  
|  
|  
| [ň]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ň“ v slove „vaňa“">ň</span> {{IPA2|ɲ|}}
|  
|  
| [ŋ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„n“ v slove „tenký“">ŋ</span> {{IPA2|ŋ|}}
| [n]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„n“ v slove „melanchólia“"><s>n</s></span> {{IPA2|ŋ̞|}}
|  
! rowspan="2" style="font-size:10px" | tónové<br>(=zvučné,<br>sonórne)
! style="font-size:10px" | ústne
|  
| [ŭ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„v“ v slove „stavba“">u̯ (ŭ)</span> {{IPA2|w|}}
|  
| [v]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„v“ v slove „slovo“">v</span> {{IPA2|ʋ|}}
|  
|  
|  
| [r]<br>[r̥]<br>[ŕ̥]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„r“ v slove „para“">r</span> {{IPA2|ɾ̺|}} <span style="cursor:help" title="„r“ v slove „vrkoč“">r̥</span> {{IPA2|r̺̍|}}
| [l]<br>[l̥]<br>[ĺ̥]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„l“ v slove „vlak“">l</span> {{IPA2|l|}} <span style="cursor:help" title="„l“ v slove „vlna“">l̥</span> {{IPA2|l̺|}}
|  
|  
|  
| [ľ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="„ľ“ v slove „ľad“">ľ</span> {{IPA2|l̺ʲ|}}/{{IPA2|ʎ|}}
| [ĭ]
| <span style="cursor:help" title="prvé „j“ v slove „dvojjazyčný“">i̯ (ĭ)</span> {{IPA2|j̞|}}
|  
|  
|}
 
== Poznámky a referencie ==
<references group=pozn/>
 
==Zdroje ==
{{Referencie|1}}