Elvis Presley

americký spevák a herec

Elvis Aaron[3][4] Presley, známy ako Elvis Presley (* 8. január 1935, Tupelo, Mississippi, USA – † 16. august 1977, Memphis, Tennessee) bol americký spevák a herec. Je považovaný za „Kráľa rokenrolu“ a za jednu z najvýznamnejších osobností kultúry 20. storočia.

Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley v roku 1958
Elvis Presley v roku 1958
Základné informácie
Rodné meno Elvis Aaron Presley
Umelecké mená Elvis, The King, The King of Rock 'n' Roll, Elvis the Pelvis, The Hillbilly Cat[1]
Narodenie 8. január 1935
Tupelo, Mississippi, USA
Úmrtie 16. august 1977 (42 rokov)
Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Pôsobenie spevák, herec
Žáner rock & roll, pop, rockabilly, blues, gospel, R&B
Hrá na nástrojoch spev, gitara, klavír
Typ hlasu barytón (D2[2]-C♯5[2])
Roky pôsob. 1954 – 1977
Vydavateľstvá Sun, RCA Victor
Webstránka Elvis.com

Elvis Presley sa narodil v meste Tupelo, v štáte Mississippi. Do Memphisu v štáte Tennessee sa s rodinou presťahovali, keď mal Elvis 13 rokov. Hudobná kariéra Elvisa Presleyiho začala v roku 1954, potom ako spolu s producentom Samom Phillipsom urobili nahrávky vo vydavateľstve Sun Records. Philipsovým zámerom bolo predviesť širšiemu publiku hudobné štýly inšpirované afroamerickou hudbou. Presley hrajúci na rytmickú akustickú gitaru spolu s gitaristom Scottym Moorem a basgitaristom Billom Blackom boli pioniermi štýlu rockabilly, t.j. zrýchlenej verzii spojenia dôraznej rytmiky country music a rhythm and blues. V roku 1955 sa Presleyova sprievodná kapela doplnila o D. J. Fontanu, čím sa toto hudobné kvarteto skompletizovalo. Vydavateľstvo RCA Victor im zabezpečilo zastupovanie Colonelom Tomom Parkerom, ktorý potom riadil Elvisovu hudobnú kariéru viac ako dve desaťročia. Presleyho prvý singel, ktorý mu vydali v RCA Records, „Heartbreak Hotel“, vyšiel v januári 1956 sa stal v Spojených štátoch hitom číslo jeden. Do roka firma RCA predala Elvisovi Presleyovi desať miliónov singlov. Vďaka sérii úspešných vystúpení v televíznej sieti a nahrávkam, ktoré sa dostali na vrchol hitparád, sa Presley stal vedúcou postavou novo spopularizovaného zvuku rock and rollu, ktorý sprevádzala jeho štýl prezentácie a popularizácia vtedy marginalizovaného zvuku Afroamerickej hudby.[5] V tom období bol Elvis americkou populáciou bielej pleti považovaný za hrozbu pre morálku vtedajšej mládeže.[6]

V novembri roku 1956 mal Elvis Presley svoj herecký debut vo filme Love Me Tender. V roku 1958 bol povolaný do vojenskej služby a o dva roky neskôr niektorými zo svojich komerčne najúspešnejších diel znovuobnovil svoju nahrávaciu kariéru. Presley pod vedením Parkera usporiadal niekoľko koncertov. V 60. rokoch sa venoval tvorbe hollywoodskych filmov a produkcii soundtrackových albumov, z ktorých sa väčšina stretla s posmešnými reakciami kritiky. Medzi jeho najznámejšie filmy patrili Jailhouse Rock (1957), Blue Hawaii (1961) a Viva Las Vegas (1964). V roku 1968 sa po sedemročnej prestávke vrátil na koncertné pódium v dobre prijatom televíznom comebackovom špeciáli Elvis. Týmto úspechom si vyslúžil predĺžené na vysoko ziskovo rentabilné turné a angažmán v Las Vegas. V roku 1973 mal Elvis Presley koncert, Aloha from Hawai. Bolo to prvé takéto predstavenie sólového umelca, ktoré bolo odvysielané do celého sveta. Roky zneužívania liekov na predpis a nezdravé stravovacie návyky však vážne ohrozili jeho zdravie. V roku 1977 Elvis Presley na svojom panstve Graceland vo veku 42 rokov náhle zomrel.

S celosvetovým predajom zhruba 500 miliónov nahrávok patrí Elvis Presley medzi najpredávanejších hudobných umelcov všetkých čias. Komerčne uspel vo viacerých hudobných žánroch vrátane tradičnej populárnej hudby, country, rhythm & blues, adult contemporary a gospelu. Získal tri ceny Grammy, ako 36-ročný dostal cenu Grammy za celoživotný prínos a je uvedený do viac ako dvadsať siení slávy. Elvis Presley je držiteľom viacerých rekordov: RIAA jeho albumy zo všetkých umelcov najviackrát cerifikovala na Zlato a Platinu a má aj najviac albumov v rebríčku Billboard 200. Elvis Presley má najviac albumov na prvej priečke britského rebríčka UK Albums Chart a aj najviac singlov v ich rebríčku UK Singles Chart. V roku 2018 bolo Elvisovi Presleyimu prezidentom USA posmrtne udelené ocenenie Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Životopis upraviť

Jeho kariéra začala v roku 1953 kedy sa stal jedným z prvých predstaviteľov žánru nazvaného rockabilly, ktorý bol rytmicky zosilneným spojením country a rhythm and blues. Jeho neobvyklé verzie existujúcich songov preberali zvuk hudby amerického obyvateľstva tmavej aj svetlej pleti a spravili z Presleyho zároveň populárnu, ale aj kontroverznú osobnosť[7][8][9] s bezprostredným prejavom pri vystúpeniach v televízii, či na koncertoch. Elvis Presley nahral klasické rokenrolové skladby ako sú napríklad „Hound Dog“ a „Jailhouse Rock“, no naspieval aj gospelové, bluesové, country, ballady, či popové piesne. Elvis Presley bol uvedený do štyroch hudobných siení slávy: v roku 1986 do Rokenrolovej siene slávy, v roku 1997 do Rockabilly Hall of Fame, v roku 1998 do Country Music Hall of Fame a v roku 2001 do Gospel Music Hall of Fame (2001). V roku 1984 dostal ocenenie W. C. Handyho od nadácie Blues Foundation a Academy of Country Music prvú cenu Golden Hat Award. V roku 1987, sa stal držiteľom American Music Awards.[10]

Veľkou záľubou Elvisa Presleyho, okrem hudby, boli bojové športy. Je držiteľom troch čiernych pásov v bojových umeniach. Jeho prvým učiteľom bol Jürgen Seydel, ktorý učil Elvisa Shotokan Karate v Nemecku, v Nauheime do roku 1958, keď bol v armáde. Získal prvé hodnosti, v r. 1958-1960 trénoval pod majstrom Európy v Shotokan Karate Senseiom Tetsugio Murakami. V Beverly Hills sa v r. 1960 Elvis stretáva s Edom Parkerom, zakladateľom amerického Kenpo, stávajú sa z nich dobrí priatelia. Ed zoznamuje Elvisa s Hankom Slomanskim, majstrom Shito-Ryu Karate Japonska z r. 1953 a neskorším Medzinárodným komisárom karate USA. Hank Slomanski si Elvisa tak obľúbil, že pri jeho povýšení do stupňa Shodan, dáva Elvisovi vlastný čierny pás. V r. 1964 získava 2. stupeň Nidan. Od začiatku kamarátstva s Edom Parkerom spolupracujú aj na filmoch, Ed trénuje Elvisa kenpo a už vo filmoch Blue Hawai a Roustabout z r. 1961 prezentuje Elvis rôzne techniky bojových umení. Po r. 1968 sa Elvis upriamuje len na školu Eda Parkera, dokonca financuje otvorenie školy karate v Memphise (Tennessee Karate Institute), v ktorej boli aj Joe Lewis alebo Bill Wallace. Taktiež v Memphise od r. 1970 do r. 1974 trénoval u juhokórejského majstra Kang Rheeho zakladateľa systému PaSaRyu. Elvis tu pôsobí aj ako inštruktor, v r. 1974 získava čierny pás, dosahuje 8 stupeň San. V tom istom roku ho Ed Parker povyšuje už na 8. stupeň čierneho pása v Kenpo. Elvis bol za svoju oddanosť bojovým umeniam odmenený miestom v Martial Arts Hall of Fame in New York. Ed Parker sa o Elvisovi vyjadril takto: Bol to pokorný človek. Naučil ma viac, ako ja jeho.

V 60. rokoch hral Presley hlavnú úlohu v 31 filmoch, z ktorých bola väčšina muzikálov. Zo strany kritiky boli filmy hodnotené vlažne, no komerčne boli úspešné.[11] Filmy s Elvisom Presleym patria však medzi prvé filmy, v ktorých sa objavujú východné bojové umenia. V roku 1968 vystupoval naživo v televíznych programoch[12] a na koncertoch po Spojených štátoch, najviac v Las Vegas. V roku 1973 mal Presley prvý koncert s priamym televíznym prenosom, Aloha from Hawaii, ktorý videla naraz miliarda divákov, ďalších 500 miliónov ho sledovalo v repríze.

Magazín Rolling Stone (Tulák) napísal „Elvis Presley je rokenrol“ a súbor jeho tvorby nazval „akrami dokonalého materiálu.“ Počas aktívnej nahrávacej kariéry, ktorá trvala viac ako dve desaťročia, Presley vytvoril a prelomil mnoho rekordov koncertnej návštevnosti aj predaja.[13] Stal sa jedným z najvplyvnejších a najpredávanejších umelcov v hudobnej histórii. Mal viac ako 40 singlov v americkej top 100 a 18 sa stalo číslom jeden.

Cesta ku koncu upraviť

9. októbra 1973 sa Elvis rozviedol s Priscillou, s ktorou odišla aj ich dcéra Lisa Marie. Pribral na váhe, užíval mnoho liekov, avšak stále vystupoval na koncertoch a nahrával piesne. Medzi rokmi 1969 a 1977 absolvoval 1094 úplne vypredaných vystúpení a bol prvým umelcom, ktorý v štyroch vystúpeniach za sebou vypredal Madison Square Garden v New Yorku. V utorok 16. augusta 1977 bol 42-ročný Elvis nájdený svojou snúbenicou Ginger Alden na podlahe kúpeľne vo svojom dome v Memphise. Zomrel na infarkt kvôli jeho obezite.

Po Elvisovej smrti sa jeho sídlo Graceland premenilo na múzeum a stalo sa druhou najnavštevovanejšou budovou v USA, hneď po Bielom dome. Každoročne sa tam schádzajú davy fanúšikov, Elvisovi napodobitelia a dvojníci. Jeho piesne stále vychádzajú a mnohí ľudia dodnes veria, že nezomrel a raz sa vráti. Všeobecne je považovaný za jedného z najlepších spevákov 20. storočia.

Filmografia upraviť

 
Elvis Presley, považovaný za „Kráľa rock and rollu
  • 1956 - Love Me Tender
  • 1957 - Jailhouse Rock / ("Väzenský Rock")
  • 1957 - I cant help
  • 1958 - King Creole
  • 1960 - G. I. Blues
  • 1960 - Flaming Star
  • 1961 - Wild in the Country
  • 1961 - Blue Hawaii / ("Elvis Presley:" Modrý Hawaii")
  • 1962 - Follow That Dream / ("Choď za svojím snom")
  • 1962 - Kid Galahad
  • 1962 - Girls! Girls! Girls! / ("Elvis Presley: Girls! Girls! Girls!")
  • 1963 - It Happened at the World's Fair / ("Stalo sa na svetovej výstave")
  • 1963 - Fun in Acapulco / ("Elvis Presley: Fun in Acapulco")
  • 1964 - Kissin 'Cousins
  • 1964 - Viva Las Vegas / ("Elvis: Viva Las Vegas")
  • 1964 - Roustabout / ("Elvis Presley: Roustabout")
  • 1965 - Tickle Me
  • 1965 - Girl Happy
  • 1965 - Harum Scarum / ("Elvis: Harum Scarum")
  • 1965 - Paradise, Hawaiian Style / ("Elvis Presley: Paradise Hawaiian Style")
  • 1966 - Frankie a Johnny
  • 1966 - Spinout / ("Elvis Presley: Ťažké sa rozhodnúť")
  • 1967 - Clambake / ("Mejdan")
  • 1967 - Double Trouble / ("Elvis Presley: Poriadny malér")
  • 1967 - Easy Come, Easy Go
  • 1968 - Stay Away, Joe
  • 1968 Live a Little, Love a Little
  • 1968 - Speedway / ("Elvis Presley: Okruh")
  • 1969 - Charro!
  • 1969 - Change of Habit
  • 1969 - The Trouble with Girls / ("Elvis: Problémy s dievčatami")

Referencie upraviť

  1. Elvis Presley 1953–1955 : The Hillbilly Cat [online]. [Cit. 2008-08-16]. Dostupné online.
  2. a b Youtube - The vocal range of Elvis Presley [online]. . Dostupné online.
  3. (May 9, 2002). "Elvis Presley – the Singer". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-10-12.
  4. "FAQ: Elvis' middle name, is it Aron or Aaron?" Elvis.com. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
  5. Billboard writer Arnold Shaw, cited in Denisoff 1975.
  6. Brown & Broeske 1997, s. 55.
  7. See Fensch, Thomas. The FBI Files on Elvis Presley, pp.15-17.
  8. Jorgensen, p.49
  9. An example of press criticism can be found at Gould, Jack (June 6, 1956). "TV: New Phenomenon" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  10. Cook, p.33
  11. Falk and Falk, p.52
  12. Hopkins 2007, p.215
  13. [Is Elvis the Biggest Selling Recording Artist? – Sorting Out Records Sales Stats & RIAA Rules. http://www.elvis.com/news/full_story.asp?id=131]. Retrieved 2008-10-27.

Literatúra upraviť

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